Money and capital markets are two significant parts of the global financial structure.
The money market is a trade on borrowing and lending short-term funds among governments, banks, corporations and other financial institutions. The lending periods may vary from overnight to year-long.
On the other hand, the capital market is the place for trading stocks and bonds. Financial institutions, brokers, and individuals actively participate in the capital market.
The broad financial market is composed of the money market and the capital market.
The Money Market
A money market is a financial market that deals with short-term debt instruments. Money market instruments have maturities of less than one year.
The money market is used by both businesses and governments to borrow or lend short-term funds. The money market is distinct from the capital market, which is a market for long-term debt instruments.
Short-term debt instruments include collateral loans, commercial paper, Treasury bills, and certificates of deposit. The maturity of these debt instruments is one year or less. The money market is also sometimes referred to as the debt market.
Advantages of money market instruments:
Safety and stability: Money market investments are typically very safe and stable, offering investors the peace of mind that their capital is not at risk.
Liquidity: Money market investments are highly liquid and can be easily converted into cash if needed. This makes them an ideal investment for meeting emergency operating expenses or short-term goals.
The capital market
A capital market is a market for buying and selling long-term debt instruments and equity securities. Capital markets channel the savings of individuals and institutions into the investments of businesses and governments. This process of channelling funds from savers to borrowers plays a vital role in allocating resources and the smooth functioning of an economy.
The capital market is often divided into two main segments: the primary market and the secondary market. Corporations and other businesses issue new securities in the primary market, while the secondary market is where existing securities are traded.
The capital market has sub-markets based on the type of security being traded. For example, the bond market is a sub-market of the capital market that deals in the trading of bonds. Similarly, the stock market is a sub-market of the capital market that trades in stocks.
Capital markets play a vital role in the economy by:
- Allocating capital to its most efficient uses
- Managing risk
- Providing liquidity
- Facilitating economic growth and prosperity
The critical differences between Money Market vs Capital Market:
- The money market is the place for short-term lending, whereas the capital market is for raising long-term capital for business.
- In capital markets, business institutions issue stocks and bonds to retail investors and other business corporations and brokers. The money market offers a short-term lending facility to banks, government and financial institutions at a reasonable rate.
- The money market is more liquid than the capital market.
- The capital market is considered riskier than the money market instruments due to high volatility and market risk.
- The capital market is potentially more rewarding if invested wisely than investing in debt instruments.